|AGGRESSION AND APPEASEMENT
An Attempt To Make Sustained Yield Visible
(Aggression and Appeasement was put together in late 1995 and sent to deputy ministers in the B.C. Ministries of Forests and Environment, local and provincial members of the NDP, I.W.A. executive officers and the B.C. Federation of Labour. Introductory pages linked each article with NDP forest policy within continuing sustained yield forest management.
This collection of forest and sustainability science articles is neither a complete nor a comprehensive detailing of sustained yield, only a beginning.
After the table of contents for AGGRESSION AND APPEASEMENT I have included books and articles I would include now (Jan. 1998), but the definitive indictment of sustained yield has yet to be written - a perfect ISLAND PRESS opportunity if someone skillful is interested.)
SECTION ONE: A GLOBAL, RESOURCE, VALUES, OVERVIEW
a) The Growth Imperative and Sustainable Development
Jim MacNeill et el. from BEYOND INTERDEPENDENCE
b) Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation, and Conservation: Lessons from History
Ludwig, Hilborn and Walters from Science 2 April 1993
c) The Notion of Natural and Cultural Integrity
Henry A. Regier from ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS
SECTION TWO: SUSTAINED YIELD FOREST MANAGEMENT
a) The Classical Sustained Yield Concept: Content and Philosophical Origins
Robert G. Lee from Symposium on Sustained Yield
b) Is National Forest Planning Incompatible With a Land Ethic?
Allan G. McQuillan from Journal of Forestry May 1990
c) What's Wrong With Sustained Yield?
Ken Drushka from STUMPED
d) Conserving Biodiversity in Managed Forests
A.J. Hansen et el. from Bioscience June 1991
e) Integrated Resource Management: Is It Possible?
A.D. Crerar from Forest Planning Canada 7.6
f) Multiresource Forest Management: A Paradigmatic Challenge to Professional Forestry
R.W. Behan Journal of Forestry April 1990
g) Are Sustained Yield and Sustained Forests Equivalent?
R.M. Alston a paper presented to SAF National Convention August 1991
SECTION THREE: ECOCENTRIC MANAGEMENT
a) New Perspectives for Sustainable Natural Resources Management
Winifred B. Kessler et el. from Ecological Applications Aug. 1992
b) Natural Forest Landscape Management: A Strategy for Canada
D.L. Booth et el. from The Forestry Chronicle April 1993
c) Landscape Ecology: A Study of Terrain Ecosystems
J. Stan Rowe
d) Ecological Health and Sustainable Resource Management
Bryan G. Norton from ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS
e) Trends and Issues In Land and Water Resources Management: Setting the Agenda for Change
Hannah J. Cortner and Margaret A. Moote from ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
The following publications are invaluable in understanding continuing sustained yield. The citations are centered on forestry in my neck of the woods, B.C. and the U.S. Pacific North-West, but the lessons learned are applicable where ever professional foresters practice sustained yield forestry.
Gregory Aplet et el., editors ISLAND PRESS and The Wilderness Society 1993
DSF is a collection of essays arguing for a change from forest management for timber sustainability to managing for ecosystem sustainability. The articles by Jerry Franklin Reed Noss, John Gordon and Alice Rivlin are particularly valuable.
Katherine Kohm and Jerry Franklin, editors ISLAND PRESS 1997
In the 29 chapters of this excellent and encyclopedic introduction to ecosystem management force "the forester of the 20th century (who) could go to his post in the woods, (and) plan for a sustained flow of timber" is introduced to "21st century forestry (that) will be defined by understanding and managing complexity, providing a wide range of ecological goods and services, and managing across broad landscapes". R.W. Behan's devastating critique of timber sustainability management is especially relevant.
The Sept/Oct 1995 INNER VOICE interview of Norm Johnson, creator of FORPLAN, the forest planning computer modeling tool, is a smoking gun pointing out that sustained yield planning, including modeling tools such as FORPLAN, are incompatible with management for ecosystem health and function.
"(FORPLAN) was designed to help estimate even flow levels of timber output through time while recognizing other Forest Service objectives by putting in certain constraints and manipulating various inputs. When you go from measuring sustained yield of outputs to sustaining processes and functions of the ecosystem, you really change your whole orientation and how you think about the problem. FORPLAN was not set up to deal with this latter view of sustainability." Norm Johnson
There are several articles on the evolution of FORPLAN and other timber planning models that describe the economic-environment interface in forestry and the complexity of and problems with segmenting ecosystems for economic goals :
THE GENESIS OF FORPLAN David Iverson and Richard Alston Intermountain Research Station 1986 - a very useful overview of FORPLAN and forest planning
FOREST SERVICE PLANNING: Accommodating Uses, Producing Outputs, and Sustaining Ecosystems Hanna Cortner et el. Congress of U.S. Office of Technological Assistance
Modeling the Timber Supply FOREST RESEARCH NEWS B.C. Ministry of Forests 1994 - update on forest planning modeling programs with a good bibliography
A COMPARISON OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND MULTIPLE USE SUSTAINED YIELD MANAGEMENT by LeMaster, Franklin, Salwasser and Sample
This paper from the World Forestry Congress (Oct 97) is a reasonable but provocative overview of the evolution from MUSY to EM. There is a useful table comparing EM and MUSY. Rejection of fragmenting division into intensively managed forest crops and park protected wilderness is a timely, biodiversity protecting, response to the current polarization of land use planning.
The Reports and Recommendations of The Scientific Panel For Sustainable Forest Practices In Clayoquot Sound (CORTEX CONSULTANTS) describe the sustained yield forestry previously practiced in Clayoquot Sound (Report Two) and, turning forestry on it's head, describe an ecosystem-based forestry to replace it. Will become the template for forestry in B.C.
Chapters Two and Three of FORESTS IN TRUST (Cheri Burda, Deborah Curran, Fred Gale, and Michael M'Gonigle , Eco-Research Chair University of Victoria) is a comprehensive description of the problems with sustained yield forestry in B.C. and the failure of NDP forest policy to address these problems.
Learning and Change in the British Columbia Forest Policy Sector by Ken Lertzman, Jeremy Rayner, and Jeremy Wilson (March 1996 Canadian Journal of Political Science) is an academic introduction to the "dominant advocacy coalition" of forest policy makers . The authors characterize sustained yield as a central pillar of traditional forest policy - a vulnerable pillar that should be attacked.
Sustained yield management has been applied to all "natural resources". As a framework for fisheries management sustained yield has been particularly disastrous.
Peter Larkin's classic, oft-cited 1976 speech to the American Fisheries Society: An Epitaph for the Concept of Sustained Yield, is about well meaning scientists and the damage they can do if resource production is the goal.
(Finding old -1950s and 60s era - forestry textbooks in your local library is a good method of understanding the education foresters receive. The obfuscatory phrases haven't been added yet and you can watch as forests are manipulated as stem-volume factories with only the very rare dear or elk crossing the pages. In fact the biological desert found in these textbooks should be explored as an example of reductionism in applied science.)
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